Skip to main content

Full text of "The painting of the house."

^4% 4 




Chemistry of Paints 



WITH PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS 
ON THE USE OF PAINT AND 
THE SELECTION OF COLORS. 



DESIGNED AND MADE BY 

HARRISON BROTHERS & CO. 

PHILADELPHIA, 
1890. 




ti: \m 




JOHN HARRISON 

FOUNDER OF THE HOUSE OF 

HARRISON BROS. & CO. 
1793. 



THIi Cl IlCMI^l K\- 



1 '.MX 1 



I 



N I'chruary ISS6, a coniinittcc of the Master Painters of Phila- 
ddplua called upon Harrison Uvos. & Co. to request aid in 
. ntertain.n;; the Master Painters' Association of the United States 
am LaiKub. vvl hold its reRular annual meeting' in 

h ladelphia m the follownig July. The firm promptly suhscril)ed 
to the ^^eneral entertannnent fund, and favorably considered the 
suj^-e.tion of the connnittee to open their works to the inspection 
ot the inemhersof the Association, so that they miRht vievy the opera- 
tions of panit-makinK throu-h all the various processes, heKinninir 
at the crude material and endin- with the hi-hlv-finished pigments 
in condition to meet the varied recpiirenients of the trade. This 
was an especial consideration on the part of this firm, as their 
works are usuall\' closed to visitors because of the employment of 
niuch special machinery and processes not elsewhere in use. Never- 
theless, as these factories are the only plant in which the manufacture 
ot acids and chenncals is conducted in conjunction with the manu- 
tacture of paints, and as the association mi^-ht not have a similar 
opportunity ofTerin<r such interest and instruction, the firm waived 
all rules and precedent so that the local committee might be in posi- 
tion to entertain their guests in an unusual manner. 
^ The inspection of large works (especially such as those at 
(xrays Ferry, which include thirty-five different buildings and 
departments) at any time is more or less fatiguing, but in the 
middle of summer it may he particularly so. owing to the heat ; it 
was, therefore, thought desirable to make special provision for the 
comtort, as well as for the instruction, of the visitors The entire 
matter was given in charge of one of the firm's business managers, 
who was enjoined to spare no expense in making complete in every 
respect the arrangements for a satisfactor\' and pleasant visit. 

3 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



Committees from the clerks and salesmen were appointed to take 
charge of the various details. After careful planning, a route was 
laid throughout the entire works, so that all might be seen without 
retracing an}' steps, and, where necessar\% special passage-ways 
were constructed to accomplish this end. A guide-book was care- 
full}^ prepared, and all the prominent points were numbered in 
large figvues, with corresponding numbers in the guide-book for 
reference, so that, b}^ the aid of the book, any one could readily 
understand the connection of the different factories and the 
different processes. 

A special train of seven passenger coaches was pro^'ided to 
carr}' the members of the Association from the Broad Street Sta- 
tion (which was near their general meeting hall) directl>' into the 
works. Ijpon leaving the train, preliminary light refreshments 
were provided, so that prior to starting on the tour all might 
be in good trim. Although the progress through the works 
was rapid, several hours were occupied in making the inspection, 
and it was nearly dark when finished. 

The visitors were then conducted into a large tent erected for 
the purpose, where tables had been set and covers laid for over 
four hundred guests ; brilliantly lighted with electric and Siemens 
lamps and elaborately decorated with natural plants and draperies, 
the scene impressed ever>' one with its richness and its beaut}'. A 
banquet, ser\'ed by one of Philadelphia's famous caterers and 
enlivened by the music of a militar}' band, was thoroughly 
enjoyed. The usual speeches concluded the affair, and the 
special train landed the beaming and rotund painters safely at the 
Broad Street Station before midnight. 

The arrangements for the exhibition of the works and foi 
the entertainment of the guests of the firm were unanimousl> 
declared fitting and complete. 

The following description of the processes of paint making 
is largely taken from the guide-book prepared for the above- 
mentioned occasion, and it is hoped that it will interest and 
instrucl: all who may have anything to do with j^aints. 

Pigments and material used in the manufacture of paints 
are so essentially chemical products that their consideration is 
involved in that of manufacturing chemistr}-; and, as manu- 
facfluring chemistr}' so largely depends on sulphuric acid, it is 
well to hav^ some information as to the manufacflure of this 
article and its relation, through the many intermediate processe*i. 
to the manufacture of paints. 



THE CHE.tr/S7Jiy OF PAI.XTS. 



Brim- 
stone. 



Stilphur 
Burners. 



Thi,s gas, 



W nil that thought we start our guests at the beo-in- 
nuigot chemical proces.ses, showin| the pile of brim- 
stoue, which ,s the article as recdved from sSly 
siuelted there in a primitive way from the brimstone bearin<. rock 
This is cnide bnmstone, and it is procured by a crude proems ■ 
but by selection a wonderfully pure article can be had ^ ' 

it- }^^ k'^T^ '^'', '* ^""'^ '" t^^ furnaces arranged for 
m this ^^^^- the fumes are similar to those o-fven 
from a sulphur match, and are sulphurous-acid "-as 
by coming m contact with oxidizing material^crenerallv ^m 
viced m the form of nitrate of soda-fs converted into the hi<?er 
n^f 1 % '"^P,^^""'^ ^<^id. The hot gases from the buyers are 
parsed through a tower called a "Glover" tower whicHroJides 
oxidizing material b^- means of a cascade of mixed sulphuric add 

Sln'cLmblr^^ "'''"^'' ''''' ^'"^^^ '^^^-^ -^° ^^^ 4e 

We now reach the chamber floor and have a 
view between two of the leaden chambers, which l««<^^" 

^^?, ^M°'^'" ^" ^^^ factory- as " Chambers 3 and ^^''^'^i'^"- 

them t^ T^ °^ ^^"^^ ^"^ ^^^^^ '^ ^^5 feet. We walk between 
XlZ}^ continue our iin-estigation of the process. In these 
chambers there is a continual commingling of the sulphurous 
fumes, the nitrous gases and steam: also more or lels S? wS 
flows ,11 through the sulphur burners during the combust on of 
the bnmstone. We can hardly say "air," because it is largely 
nitrogen, or devitalized air-that is, air with itsoxvgen extracted 
bustroy^^^^^i?^ ^°i!'^ ^Z ^h^, sulphur in the process of com: 
bustion^ The draught through the chambers carries these 
mingled gases along, depo.siting on the wav, bv a continual 
aroppmg, the sulphuric add, which collects at the bottom The 
acid thus collected is known as "chamber" acid. 

\Ve now reach the end of the chambers and 
make our exit from the building opposite a tower 
Ihis IS known as a " Gav-Lussac " tower, from the 
name of its famous inventor, and is intended to remove any 
valuable constituents remaining in the gases which have passed 
through the chambers, and which were not deposited m 
tne iKjuicl acid. In the process of removal a cascade of acid 
IS emplo>-ed, as in the Glo\-er tower, the object, however beine 
-o take from, instead of to give to, the gases. The acid, flowing 

5 



Gay-Lussac 
Tower. 



THE CHEMISTRY OF FAIXTS. 



CDiitiiiually over proper niaterial, presents a large surface to the 
ascending gases and dissolves out the valuable portions. Finally, 
the exit is through the high pipe; and when the chambers are 
working well, the escaping gases are mainly made up of steam 
and nitrogen. 

We now reach the concentrating apparatus. 

The acid from the chambers is first passed into leaden 
t^-at^ng P^^^^ supported on iron framework enclosed in brick, in 

Apparatus, which the first concentration is made. From these it 
passes into the platinum stills, of which there are two 
sets constantly at w^ork. These stills are ver}- costly appa- 
ratus, although externally they do not impress one as beino 
very valuable. They consist of a number of platiimm dishes 
enclosed in lead; each dish has an adual mone\'-\'alue of 
some $2000. 

The Theo • ^^^P^^^^^ ^^^^ '^^ ^'^^V^ eager for water — so eager that 
of concen^ ^^ ^ saucerful of oil of vitriol be exposed it will draw 
tration. the atuiospheric moisture to it and soon run over the 

sides of the dish, increasing its bulk, and weakening 
itself accordingly. Concentration simply consists of depriving 
the acid of its water by means of heat. Immense quantities 
of water are necessar}- to surround the apparatus to cool the acid 
after concentration, its temperature being from 600 to 700 degrees 
Fahrenheit when it leaves the platinum apparatus. 

Next we see the apparatus for moving oil of vitriol. It consists 
ot large receivers made of iron lined with lead, into which the 
acid flows; when filled, the supply is cut off, and air, under heavy 
pressure, is forced on top, driving the acid out from the bottom 
by a suitable outlet. As acid is almost twice as heavv as water, 
it will take about twice the pressure to lift it to any height; con- 
sequently, the air-pressure required is sometimes ver\' great, the 
acid frequently being lifted to a height of sixty feet, 'it is forced 
by this system to the different portions of the works. Its uses in 
tlie paint department are numerous. 

r..^^}^Y^i^ ^^'"^t ^^^ ^^''^^^>' ^^^" referred to as a sort of i.rime 
comL-2u^^^^^ manufacturing processes; it might almcist be 
tHS K ^ J^ "-^^^^ "^^^'^^ t^^^ machinerv of a facton . 

neZl Ivi?!^ t^^f^ '^ ""Tl ^ paint-or, in fact, anvtliing con- 
Lnd. IV''V'1^'~'"'''H^^^^ ^^^'"^ important material cannot be 
iHrep^ration^^^ or <iirectly entering into, or connected with. 

hJh^^^^ 'l^ ^^/-^ ingredient, naturallv. of that great 

bugbear of the painting fraternity, "barvtes," which is a con; 




J^r 



THE CHEMISTRY OE PAIXTS. 



pound of banum and sulphuric acid. It will be found in all 
chrome yellows which are paler than a neutral medium, and even 
in this It IS a constituent of some of the salts employed in its 
manutacture. It will be found in some fonn in the majority of the 
earth paints. It is employed in the refining and bleaching of oil 
In tnese works there are four sets of sulphur burners such as 
described, each burning daily 6000 pounds of the brimstone or a 
total of 24,000 pounds. The furnaces work continuously' day 
and niglit, weekdays and Sundays, stopping only when necessary 
to repair the chambers. The daily product is about i is 000 
pounds of chamber acid, equal to nearly 75,000 pounds of con- 
centrated sulphuric acid or oil of vitriol. 

As sulphuric acid enters largely into the composition of alum, 
the manufacture of this will now be described. 

We enter the claA-grinding room. This clay is 
knov;n as bauxite, and the best deposits are found in ^^""^ ^^^^ 
the South of France. It is ver>' rich in the ma- ^^"^'"g^- 
tenal known as alumina. The clay, after having been thoroughly 
calcined, is ground very finely in the mills seen, which are kept 
continually running to grind the large quantity daily used. When 
this clay is mixed with sulphuric acid, the alumina is extracted 
and is finally utilized as alum. 

Next we enter what is known as an "attacking" 
department. You will here see the large vats for the 
treatment of the alum clay with sulphuric acid, which 
extracts the valuable constituent, leaving behind all 
the insoluble and useless material. 

Now we enter another building, used for the separation of the 
extraneous material from the alumina solution, also for the 
partial purification of the same. In the cellar of this building we 
notice engines and mills for the grinding of some of the material 
used in the purification processes ; and on the second floor we 
find a number of filters, which are used for taking out the 
remaining light insoluble matter which will not readily settle. 

We pass more filters and settling boxes, and see the alum 
boiled do\vn to a thick mass which is fluid when hot, but which be- 
coines solid when cold, somewhat resembling clear sugar-candy. 
This is perfectly pure sulphate of alumina, or concentrated alum. 

We continue through this building, passing stacks 
of alum ready for shipment. Alum bears a highly ^"""^^^ 

important part in the manufacture of colors, and it *'^^"'°' 

is very necessar\' that it be pure. The purest made is that known 

7 



Attacking 
Depart- 
ment. 



w^m 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



as "Turkey-Red" alum and is intended for turke3^-red dyers; it 
must be so pure or free from other substances that one pound of dele- 
terious matter should not be found in 100,000 pounds of the alum. 
Alum is interesting to the paint man as gi\'ing 
•^^"c^i^rr^ the basis for carmine and nearly all lake colors, and 
is used also in greens, yellows, Prussian blues, and 
other paints. The producl: of these works is about 300 barrels 
daily. The alum used in the color-making department is the 
Turkey-Red alum. 

We pass out of this building, cross one of the rail- 
Labo- ^Q^^ sidings, and go up stairs into the laboratorv^ 

ra ones. building, whcre, in one of the best-appointed and 

largest laboratories connected with any establishment, some half 
dozen chemists are continually at work examining the crude 
material that comes into the factory- and testing the finislied 
products. Besides the chemists employed in the laboratorv', each 
department is super\'ised by a chemist who has his own minor 
laborator}' or testing room. In all the processes of this establish- 
ment tests must continuall}^ be made to determine that the 
processes are being properly conducted. The "secrets" of the 
business of this firm are the employment of able talent and a 
close attention to chemical principles, backed up hy a liberal 
expenditure for experiment. 

Directly dependent on sulphuric acid is the manufacture of 
muriatic and nitric acids, which department is now visited. 
Muria • '^^^ ^^^^ ^^ made by treating common salt, or any 

and'xitric <^t^^^r muriate, with sulphuric acid, which takes the 
Acids. place of the muriatic acid, the latter being dri\'en 

oif as a gas and collected in the necessan- receivers; 
and for nitric acid the same process is used, nitrate of soda or any 
other nitrate being employed. Nitrate of soda, being a dangerous 
substance when near burning material, is always stored in a fire- 
proof vault. 

Acetic Acetic acid is also a dependent of the suli)huric- 

Acid. acid chamber, and the dejiartment for its manufac- 

ture is now properlv the next one to examine. The 
acetic acid employed in the arts is made primarilv bv the dr^• dis- 
tillation of wood. It is a product from the' manuf^icture of 
charcoal, known in its crude form as " pvrcligneous" acid; so that 
it may Ije concentrated and carried from'the charcoal works, which 
are principally in the woods, where timber for l)urning is abun- 
dant, it is mixed with lime, and is ilun \,^u.^^^^ -.. acetate of 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAIXTS. 



lime — a ven' aromatic substance in its ordinan' impure state. By 
means of sulphuric and muriatic acids the acetic acid is separated 
from the acetate of lime, and by distillation collected in the neces- 
sarA' receivers. By undergoing various purification processes it is 
sufficienth' purified from the empyreumatic matters which, be- 
cause of its source of production, necessarily accompany it, to be 
used, when properly diluted with water, for household purposes. 
The acetic acid made in this wa}^ is preciseh' the same as that 
made from alcohol in the fermentation of cider and other alcoholic 
material. The quantity of acetic acid made daily in these w^orks 
is 16,000 pounds, which would be equal to the acid in 450 barrels 
of table vinegar. Acetic acid plays a ver>' important part in colof 
making, forming, when united with litharge, acetate of lead, or the 
well-known sugar of lead — probably more used in color making 
than any other salt. 

Aqua ammonia is a producT: of these works, but it 
is used only to a verv' limited extent in paint making. 
The usual process of making it is to heat sulphate 
of ammonia with quicklime in a tight cylinder; the quicklime 



Water of 
Ammonia. 



unites with the sulphuric acid and liberates the ammonia in 
gaseous form. The liberated gas is condu(5led to receivers 
charged with water, in which the gas is dissolved. The liquid 
ammonia, as usually sold, contains eight to ten per cent, of gas. 
The strongest made contains about twenty-seven per cent. _ The 
ammonia gas, by powerful pressure, may be condensed to a liquid 
which can be presented only in ver>' strong iron cylinders. This 
is known as anhvdrous ammonia, and because of the danger m its 
use will never be' employed for popular purposes. The original 
source of ammonia is principally in the manufacture of illuminat- 
ing gas, there colleding in the gas liquors. The pure water of 
ammonia is now obtained direcl from these liquors without first 
making the sulphate. Ammonia is ver>' useful to the painter 
and the householder. As a detergent it readily removes paint and 
varnish. It should be in ever>' household in the land. Of course 
it must be used quickly, as it evaporates rapidly and soon 
dissipates its strength. 

A fixed paint remover is made at these works, 
known as paint resolvent. It is in paste form, and 
is used by thinlv and evenly spreading it over the 
paint to be removed, which it soon softens, and which ma}' be then 
scraped away clean from the original surface. ^^-- --^^ ^- ^--"^^ 
invaluable to all painters. 

9 



Paint 
Resolvent, 



This will be found 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



White i.ead. ^^^^^^ ^^'^ ^ome to the most interesting of all articles 
to those who have to do with paints— white lead. 
Its manufaaure can be only briefly described. The materials used 
are pig lead, acetic acid, water and tan bark. B^' a sijiecial 
machine, the pig lead iscast automatically into flat round perforated 
plates about Ave inches in diameter, called buckles A quantity 




" BUCKLE" OF METALLIC LEAD, 



rCARTIinN COKROSION-1'OT. 



of these buckles is placed in earthenware pots or jars of about one 
gallon capaaty, each having two large holes in the side to permit 
the hnT^^''°" °^ ^f "'■ Lugs or shoulders a few inches from 
the bottom sustam the lead buckles and keen them fro 
touchmg the diluted acetic acid, which is ^l po "red h 
The pots are placed in layers on tan in housJs provided 
for the purpose, until built up fifteen or twentv feet hi^f 

or ijeds. ^ erj thmg ,s made properl>- t.ght. The tan soon heats 
Principle of ^'r lerments, and generates carbonic acid- the 
Corrosion. M'legar in the pots, under the influence of the 'he-it 
t. . u- ^''f'P"''^t^s a"d attacks the lead, placing it im state 
lafon Tn T'^ '^\'^^'^^^]i<^ -cid and moistufe now in f "e cSi 
lation In from sixty to ninety days the buckles of meta lie lend 






THE LllEMISTRV OF I'.MXTS. 



through vats and boxes in order to permit all the coarse particles 
to settle out and to wash out the reniaining vinegar uS? the 
milky hquid IS conducted to the final settling vat where ft settles 
tea stiff paste uliich is after^vard dried and^then gromid in oil 
The pig lead by the aid of the heat and vinegar, has united\x° h 
carbonic acid and water, increasing in weight nearly twentv-five 
percent., and m bulk several times. ' ""'^ -^ °^^ 

t;^/'^ ""T P™'''' V ^''^^' ''■^''''' ^^ gaining quite a reputa- ^,,„ 

tionwith many discriminating painters, is made upon Process 

precisely the same principles, but differenth- applied Lead. 

The pig ead, instead of being cast in buckles, is reduced to a fine 
powder; this powder IS moistened with the dilute acid or vinegar then 
so placed that carbonic-acid gas circulates freely through it the 

r^?W1 ""^■"r'"^^"''^^, f P^P^-" temperature. Sometinres this is 
called quick-process lead, because it may be made in two or 

^r^in Tf'^''.^^' If the difference in the weights of the minute 
grain of lead powder and the cast buckle be considered, it is 
relativelN- a verj- slow process— much slower than the stack process 

n fur ^5 ^''^J'^'' '* '^"'^^^" ^^ the old Dutch method; and it is 
wel established that the more slowly the lead is corroded, the bet- 
ter the body of the white lead. 

We have seen all the apparatus for making the white lead from 
the pig metal to the dry white powder. Next in order, and im- 
mediately adjoining the drying-houses, we enter the department 
where the dr>- white lead is ground in oil, but will describe this 
later on, and will now go into the oxides department 

Passing a large stack of pig lead received from the 
cars on the adjoining siding, we enter the furnace- °''''^* °' 
room, where are found a number of retorts. The pio- ^^^^ 

lead IS placed in these; and when melted, the retorts tre made to 
revolve, thereby constantly exposing a fresh surface of melted lead 
to the atmosphere and effecting a rapid oxidation. This oxidation 
IS as much a combu.stion as in the case of the brimstone. The 
vital principle of the atmosphere, oxygen, combines with the lead 
the first combination, or when the smallest quantity is taken' 
giving litharge, or the yellow oxide, also known as massicot • a 
little more gives red lead, or red oxide, also known as minium 
It the lead be heated very hot. still more oxygen is taken up, and 
a brown oxide of no interest to painters is formed; in faA, in the 
ordinary- niaiiufacT:or>' such oxide would be called "burnt lead." 

\Ve rapidly pass through this building, by the mills in 
which the litharge from the retorts is ground up in water to sep- 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



arate the unoxidized portions, precisel}' as is done 
Grinding -^^ ^^ corrodiug department, previoush' described, by 
r'^^f oSdes the pans on which the separated fine litharge is dried, 
'°° "^ ' and by the mills in which the dry product is ground 

up ready for packing. 

The retort system — controlled by patents of Har- 
The Retort ^^^^^ '^xos. & Co.— for making red lead and litharge, 
System. ^^ showu here, gives a ven' pure product ; the lead 

is entirely guarded from contact with the flame, thereby pre- 
venting cinders and other dirt from the furnace becoming mixed 
with it^ as in the ordinar}^ apparatus, in Avhich the flame passes 
over it. A large part of the produci made here is used by flint- 
glass makers, and, as they can use only the ver\' purest of material, 
it follows that for all fine purposes in other lines of manufacture 
where these oxides are required the produci of this depart- 
ment should be used. 

The next in importance to the glass makers is the 
Oxides for yamish trade. The ' * Harrison' ' oxides are well known 
Makers among the particular varnish manufacturers, going to 

all parts of the countr\-, the Western manufacturers 
especially regarding them as standard goods. The same litharge 
that is used by glass makers and varnish manufacturers is 
employed in this factor}^ in color making, and is delivered direct, 
without any charge for packing or handling, to the color-making 
department, into which we shall shortly enter. 

The retorts, sixteen in all, require fift3^-five tons of lead weekly 
to keep them in operation. 

Next in importance to white lead is zinc white. It 
is a demonstrated fact that a mixture of white lead and 
zinc white makes a better paint for exterior work than 
either singly. While this ma^' seem like heresy to the old-time 
painter, it is accepted as a fact b}^ unbiased practical men, and by 
all scientific writers on the subject of pigments and painting. It 
is the judicious proportions of these two pigments, together with 
their thorough combination with, and special treatment of the 
oil, that has made the enviable reputation of " Town and Countr>'" 
paints. We can devote a few lines only to the description of the 
manufacture of zinc white. The zinc ore is ground to 
Man^u^cture ^ ^"^ powdcr and mixed with finely powdered anthra- 
cite coal. This mixture is burned, in specially con- 
structed furnaces, on a bed of anthracite previously ignited. The 
fumes arising are oxide of zinc. They are carefully conducted 



Zinc 
White. 







m 



^ 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



through proper conduits to houses filled with bags, throueh which 
the draft IS forced. The gases filter through thf canvas^SepoS 
ing the fine white oxide-of-zinc powder. This is the American 
method, and with unimportant exceptions all made in the United 
States IS by this method. The European method dififers in first 
snieltmg the metallic zinc from the ore and subsequently burning it 
Ihe aifferent grades of zinc white are established 
simply by the proximity of the product to the furnace different 

The bags nearer the furnace will contain the oxide of ^''^'^^^• 

poorest color and mixed with a minute quantity of ash The 
more distant bags will have the whitest and purest oxide. 

Nothing is more important to the color-maker than the 
chrome salt, bichromate of potash. Chrome literally chrome 

means ' ' color, ' ' and is certainly the great color producer. ^^^^ 

The Harrison works would not be complete without a department 
for the manufacture of this valuable salt, and until the establish- 
inent of this factory there was only one other in the country 
that had been successfully conducted. Chrome ore a speckled 
mineral, very hard and heavy, is a combination of 
oxide of iron and oxide of chromium. It was mined 
for a long time past in Pennsylvania and Mar>dand, and 
recently in California. The supply for these works 
comes principally from California and the dominions of the Sub- 
lime Porte, where probably the richest ores are found. The hard 
ore IS first ground to a fine powder, and until the plan 
of percussion grinding was adopted it was the terror Manu^cturf 
of millwrights. The powdered ore is mixed with lime 
and potash (or soda, to make the soda salt) and then roasted at a 
bright-red heat with free access of air. This causes the oxide of 
chrornium to take up more oxygen and become chromic acid, and 
to unite with the lime and potash (or soda) present. The mass when 
cooled is leached, and the liquors are concentrated and treated with 
sulphuric acid-~-ever present in chemical processes. This acid 
takes up a portion of the potash and any lime present, leaving the 
chromic acid united in double the original proportion with the re- 
maining potash; hence the name ^/-chromate. This bi-chromate 
liquor is then allowed to cool and crystallize in large vats or tanks, 
technically known as dishes. In tlie course of ten days or two 
weeks the sides and pendent rods are coated with magnificent red 
crystals, which are drained, dried and packed. The product of 
these works (managed under a separate organization known as 
the Kalion Chemical Company) is of unexampled purity, and 



Composi- 
tion and 
Source of 
the Ores. 



tHr. i^/ir^.^U,^ iRV OF PAIi\TS. 



Steam 
Plant. 



doing SO 



has already received special awards at various cliemical exhi- 
bitions. 

Having studied the manufacture of the more im- 
portant chemicals required by the color-maker, we are 
ready to enter the color-making department; but before 
we will stop at the boiler plant, which is well 
Worthy of description. Originally each department had its separ- 
ate batter}^ of boilers. In several instances the allotted space had 
been filled up without supplying the demand for steam. Increase 
was necessar}^ and it became apparent that two batteries would be 
required for one department. After much consideration, the plan 
was adopted of concentrating in one building the steam 
plant for the entire works. An immen.se boiler-house was 
erected, the noble stack, one hundred and seventy-five feet high 
seen m the view of the factories given in the fore part of this pam- 
phlet, was built, and large new boilers of the most recent design 
were placed in the new house. The pressure carried is one hundred 
Capacity. pouuds, and the capacity is equal to over two thousand 
1 , horse power. A railroad siding is laid on a trestle 

along the front of the building, permitting the coal to be dumped 
Kueisup. ''■^^, ^^ ^^^s directly in front of the boilers, minimiz- 
My and mg the firemen's labor. Forty to sixty tons of hard coal 

Consumption, are bumed daily, converting into steam from one million 
to one million five hundred thousand pounds of water 
The steam is supplied to the works from an immense main steam 
pipe ov'er one thousand feet in length— the largest of 
the kind in the country at this time. It is all wrought- 
iron lap-welded pipe, made by the National Tube 
,^?,^*^^- , ^^ begins with a diameter of twenty inches 
Hud IS gradually reduced to fifteen inches as branches are taken 
rl frZ"" ^'^r"! ^""^'^^^ ^^^'■^ '^ "^^ «"^ expansion jo t ItTs 
' -^ ^^th'^^^^^^^^^ ^'"^^^ ^^™^^^ movem^ent ovei its entire 

issonu^^^^^^^^ to counteract expansion and contraction. 

.Ix^^^^l^^ ^'^^" '"^^'^^- ^""^ ^ ^""^^ is visible. This is 
.. K-' it triumph in a construction of this kind 

erSon^'^nH ^^^^J' '"^^" P^P^ ^^^"^' including ks 
The vah^^^^^^^^ jacketing, was over eleven tliousand dol 
thousalrdolla;^' "' ^^^^ ^"^^^ steam pi .. ; one hundred 

A^oining theboner.hou.sc ,. tiu compressor room 

kc^^^n !'•/.:?..'?." '^'^ ^""F -i-^^^n^Pre.ssors. whicli 
TV f compressed air, at a prefr 



Cost 

lars. 



^irCotn 
prraitor*. 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



Water Supply 

and Fire 

Pump. 



sure of seventy five pounds, for use in all the departments requir 
mg It. This has already been mentioned in the description of 
Uie acid works, and as we proceed we will notice the air Dines 
ever}^where carr>'ing this useful force which works so silentlv' 
Back of the boilers -m a large vault running the length of the 
boiler-house, one hundred and fifty feet— may be seen various 
pumps, storage tanks, etc., used for collecting and storing all the 
condensed steam, which is pulled back to the boiler lioiwe t^ 
be used again in the boilers— a perfect circulation. 

Near by are the powerful pumps, running night and 
day to turnish the great quantities of water required. A 
ten-inch main is scarcely sufficient to supply the works. 
In a separate building, absohitely fireproof, is a large 
fire pump, which is arranged to work automatically even when 
flames so surround it as to render it unapproachable. 

The steam plant is under the charge of an experi- 
enced engineer. Connected with it is a large machine Machine 
shop, where all repairs are made and much new work ^'''*^- 

IS constructed. All the mills used in the paint department are of 
special construction, and built in the machine shop. This shop is 
a special feature, and its importance may be detennined from the 
fact that, at times, fifty machinists and iron workers are employed. 
Having examined the various departments where are manu- 
factured the more important chemicals used in color-making, we 
may enter the color-making department itself This 
department is really a group of factories which would ^°'*""* 

of themselves form an independent business, and there ^e artmJnf 
are inany prominent firms and corporations whose plant ^^^^ '"^"'' 
consists only of wlmt in the Harrison works is a single depart- 
ment. 

The first minor department we enter is for the manufacfture of 
American vermilion; this article is a combination of chromic acid 
and oxide of lead, the latter existing in large propor- 
tions. It is made by boiling together white lead and 
bichromate of potash, and subsequently treating the 
produci with sulphuric acid; the result is a cr>'stalline orange 
chromate of lead. The Harrison brand is known as " Chinese 
Imperial Scarlet." Its use was at one time almost universal inagri- 
cultural-implement nnd wagon fa(51ories, but recentlv the imitation 
of Knglish vermilion has greatly surpassed it. Considering its 
cost and durability of color, it is, after all, a ver\' useful pigment, 
and is yet tlie standard color of many such establishments. '^If the 

15 



American 
Vermilion. 



'i^Sus^is^ 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



Quicksilver 
Vermilion. 



crystals be crushed, the color thereby becomes much lighter, or the 
same as the uncrj^stallized orange chrome. Americau vermilion 
is very frequently adulterated with red lead and barytes. 

Next to this, in a separate building, are the cylinders for mak- 
ing English or mercurial (quicksilver; vermilion. This is a com- 
bination of sulphur and mercur}-. Mercury or quick- 
silver, sulphur and a solution of soda are placecl in a 
heavy iron cylinder so construdled that when it is 
rapidly revolved a violent agitation of the contents results; great 
heat is generated, and the sulphur and the mercury unite. Great care 
is necessary to secure a good color. A natural color of the com- 
bination of sulphur and mercury is black, and the red color is 
largely due to friction. The chemical composition of both the 
black and the red sulphide is precisely the same; the difference is 
due to a difference in the arrangement of the particles, or what 
the chemists call the molecules: a chemist would say it is a dif> 
ference in molecular structure. This fact accounts for the tend- 
ency of quicksilver vermilion to blacken: it is the tendency of the 
compound to return to its more 7iatural black state. As there is 
ahvays an escape of sulphuretted gases in the manufadlure of this 
article, it is necessary to condu(5l it in an isolated building freely 
ventilated; othenvise, all the lead colors— such as }'ellow chrome, 
green, etc.— would be seriously damaged bv the formation of the 
black sulphide of lead. 

We all know that one of the most wonderful exploits of 
chemistry was the discover}^ in nasty coal tar of the most bril- 
liant dyes. One of these dyes is called eosine. Bv itself it is a 
most lovely rose color; when the red oxide of lead 'is dved with 
it. a magnificent vermilion is obtained, as much brighter than 
the quicksilver vermilion as the latter is brighter than the lead 
vermilion. This brilliant pigment is known as imitation ver- 
milion, and is sold under various fanc3'-names, many of the 
manufacturers adopting the names of the celebrated mines of 
quicksilver. One of the most famous mines is that of Idria. in 
Austria; the imitation vennilion made at this factorv is named 
alter that mine, prefixing the word " New." ' New Idria 
vermilion is well known to all consumers of vennilion 
as one of the best of the class. New Idria vermilion 
^trnncr^^f ^"^ made from the finest orange mineral dved with the 
tll^T\^?x:''^\ /^' T ^^^ ^'^^^^^ ^^1^^^' imitation vermilion is 
^nS^^^ ^' ^'^^^' ^^^ chief adulterant is barytes: 

some specimens contain as much as ei^hlv-five per cent. Other 

x6 



New 
Idria 
Vermilion. 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAEXTS. 



adulterants are whiting and terra alba. Some are made with the 
addition of white lead; this requires more eosin, and a beautiful 
crimson shade is produced. This, however, rapidly fades on ex- 
posure, and the best and most permanent is that made with 
orange mineral and eosin only, which give the rich scarlet shade. 

The operations of making the American and imita- 
tion vermilions are conducted in large vats or tubs. drying 
The finished color is then freed of its water as much ^™^' 
as possible by filtering and pressing, and the moist mass 
is afterward removed to the drying rooms, where the re- 
maining moisture is dried out. In the past the final drying 
required weeks; now days are sufficient. The unscientifically 
constructed drying closets are replaced by rooms built entirely of 
brick and iron. Each room is provided w^ith a fan, which forces 
throughout the entire space a continuous current of warm dr^- air 
in a complete circulation. The color, in cakes, is placed on trays, 
which are laid on racks. Each color has its own room. The fans 
are run by small engines, which operate day and night until the 
cakes of color are bone dr}-. The room is emptied and filled 
again, closed up, and the operation continues without the least 
possible loss of time. Each sub-department of the general depart- 
ment of color-making has its own drying rooms. From the dry- 
ing rooms the vermilions are taken to the grinding and sifting 
apparatus and reduced to the fine state in which they are found 
in the dealers' hands. 

The ne.Kt department we visit is that for making yellow and 
orange chrome. These also are combinations of 
chromic acid and oxide of lead; but for these, lead salts — 
the nitrate and acetate of lead — are used. A nitrate of 
lead will give a yellow with physical properties different from one 
made of acetate, though both have precisely the same chemical 
composition. This is again due to the different arrangement of 
those imaginary atoms called by the chemist molecules. We see 
large vats in which the various salts are dissolved; when of the 
right temperature and density, these solutions are run together in 
large vats, and the color is seen to fall out. This is called * ' strik- 
ing" the color, and the operation is one of great delicacy. The 
chemical change is easily understood. Acetic acid and oxide of 
lead are combined as sugar of lead; this is soluble in water. 
Chromic acid and potash are combined as bichromate of potash — 
a salt also soluble in water. When the two solutions come 
together, the chromic acid goes to the lead, making 

17 



Chrome 

Yellow. 



THE CHEMISTRy OF FAINTS. 



Theory of chromatc of lead, and the acetic acid goes to the 
urn Potasli, making acetate of potash. The chromate of 

• lead IS the insoluble chrome yellow, and falls out of 

the solution. The acetate of potash is soluble, remains in the 
hquid with the color, and is finally washed out with pure water 
This operation is one of precipitation. The reaction is called 
double decomposition, and the foregoing explanation answers for 
all colors made by precipitation. 

This leads us to consider color-making in a more general way 
We are now in the chief color-maker's office, and find it quite 
color- ^"°'^^<f ^° appearance to the laboratories referred to on 

Making a P^p ^- ^^ IS a laboratory as well as an office. The chief 
Science. color-maker is a chemist who received most of his train- 

ing in the general laboratories of the works; his assistants 
are required to be able to make chemical tests, and are expected 
to familiarize themselves with the chemical knowledge bLnim 
directly on their work. While color-making involves Aat m.glu 
be called many 'rule-of-thumb" operations, yet ever>' one 
t^^fl so-called "rule-of-thumb" practices, when viewedlom a 
scentific standpoint, is capable of being resolved and amplified 
into snenUfic practice. Much mysterj- is thrown around this 

bvT/.r^f^^'''-^"- '"'^'^"^^ '^^P^"^^ "P°n education guided 
by practical experience. Many of the most valuable chen^^ 

knlvn^fof ^^%b'^-\evolved from facts or results noticed a" "d 
known for a long time by workmen, and it is only when some one 

or the?rv"?T"i;"'r '^' ""^T ""'. ^^^^'^ ^^^^^' ^'"^ ^^^ "-"" 
IL ;.-?^.,ru ^"^' f'^«^0"^-e<-ed and more fulh- and scientificalh- 
applied. When, in the color-making department, it is ascertained 
that brown sugar of lead-an impure salt as compared with the 
beautiful white crj-stallized sugar of lead-will niake certain 
colors which the white will not>roduce, we .soon learn that the 
very impurities, which consist of%yroligneous naUe a ve a 

SS sTts'on'tf '''^'''\ T^i'^'^P^-^t^ ^J- reactSn c'th^ 
take Place ?f abs^bft f «'l>'-fo™^ed color-a reaction that would 
lake piice it absolutely pure chemicals were used without the 
pyrohgneous mordant or its equivalent. 

Adulteration • ^^rytes is the Common adulterant of all paints and 
«rcoior. 's u'.ed immediately Ix^fore or after • • striking' ' t lie cX 

ra uses increased doses of bar>tes as comiH.-titi<,n 



I 



kmrn^Fwrn^ 




I 



- ^>« 



i 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



lowers his pnces. The dishonest painter makes two coats of paint 
till his contract for three; he buys adulterated oils, or wilfully 
adulterates them; he will take a strong-bodied and oriRinallv 
reliable paint, and by reducing it with all the cheap and vile 
material it will bear will make a profit out of a contract taken at a 
rate that would net only a loss to the honest man. 

Fortunately, the great majority of painters are honest; and the 
crusade against low-grade paints started by the proprietors of the 
works we are now describing is forcing unscrupulous paint makers 
to adopt higher standards. While bar>'tes is used almost invari- 
ably as a mere adulterant, it occasionally serves the purpose of 
diluting a color, or, more properly speaking, of separating its parti- 
cles and delaying— or preventing, possibly— chemical reactions 
which speedily might occur were the color perfedly pure. In its 
precipitated form, or as blanc fixe, it is an invaluable material 
when used as a base for certain light lake colors which could 
hardly be coUecfled but for such a base; so, when the analysis of a 
color shows the presence of barytes, it is necessary to go farther — 
and the intelligent analyst knows how to go farther— to discover 
whether this sulphate of baryta which he finds is the crude 
native mineral simply ground to a fine powder, or that precipi- 
tated to impalpable fineness from solutions— the blanc fixe. The 
proprietors of these works stand alone in having for a long 
time past steadily and persistently exposed to painters the frauds 
pracflised upon them; yet they know that sulphate of bar>'ta is like 
a great many other things in constant use: it may be used prop- 
erly or it may be abused. On general principles, however, it is 
safe to turn resolutely from any color which consists largely of 
barytes. Some colors are wonderfully strong, and may apparnii- 
ly still be good colors, when there is no standard near for com> 
parison, and yet may contain ninety-five per cent, or more of this 
adulterant. 

To insure success in these days of intense com- 
petition, not only must the scientific features of color- ch^nTcs^Si 
making be well understood, but all the mechanics of m k^'^*^' 
the business must be thoroughly studied. In these ^ ^°^* 

works every known appliance is used; the agency of compressed 
air is brought into play wherever possible; the old-style slow- 
working filter and the hand press are replaced by the filter press, 
in which machine are combined the two operations of 
filtering and pressing. Some colors, such as ver- 
milion, will not readily permit the employment of the 



FiTter 
Press. 



THE CHEMISTRY OF J'AIAJ^. 



filter press, and for such colors very few modifications of the old 
processes are practicable. Colors such as chrome yellows, chrome 
greens, Prussian blues, Tuscan red and the lakes make a thin fluid 
pulp which may be forced into the filter press through pipes. 
The thin color is run from the striking tub, after it has been 
washed, into a vat of sufficient size to hold several batches; in 
this they are intimately blended, to insure uniformity of shade. 
Next they are run into a cylindrical vessel made of ver>' heavy 
sheet copper: this is called vwntjus (meaning to raise liquid); 
and when filled, the inlet is closed. A pressure of fifty to eighty 
pounds to the square inch is applied to the surface of the pulp, 
which forces it from the exit tube opening at the bottom of the 
vessel and connecting with the press; the press is rapidly filled 
up, and the cakes of color become very dense, the water being 
squeezed out by the powerful pressure. 

The air pressure is used in the color-making depart- 
^re^ °d^AiT ^^^^ ^^ move acids and chemical solutions which 
presse ir. ^^,^^^^^ corrode pumpiug machinery'; the operation is 
swift, noiseless and certain. The compressed air is also made to 
do certain other work that formerly was done by the hand of the 
laborer. 

The description of the manufacture of chrome yel- 
Seenl^ low applies also to that of chrome green. This is really a 

mixture of yellow and blue, and the two colors are 
thrown down together, which gives a brightness and a per- 
manency not obtained by simple mixture. When the jellow is 
taken from the drying-room, it is ready for sale as dry 3'ellow, or 
for deliver>' to the grinding department to be converted into oil 
color. Chrome green, before it is packed for sale dry or before it 
is transferred to the color grinders, is first reduced in dr>' color 

mills to a fine powder. Sylvan gr^en, so well known 
Grl^u ^^ ^^^^ trade in general, is made here. This is a ver>' 

permanent and brilliant green, and it is made in six 
shades — from ver>' pale to very deep. 

Chinese Blue Chinese and Prussian blues are ])roduced from pnis- 
anrp^ssila ^^^^^ ^^ potash and an iron salt — usually copperas. If 
Blue. ^^e yellow prussiate of potash and copperas be used, 

the color, when first struck, is ivhite: this by oxidation 
turns blue, and the oxygen of the atmosphere will effect thischange 
if sufficient time be given. To obtain quickly the rich deep blues 
with a lustre of bronze, there must be recourse to powerful oxidizing 
agents, aided by heat. Strong nitric acid is used for some blues, 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



chlorate of potash for others; and various other agents are em- 
ployed. Soluble Chinese blue for the laundry is an important 
feature of the blue department. There is but ver>^ little chemical 
difference between the ordinary Chinese blue (which is insoluble 
in water) and that which is soluble; this quality of solubility is 
obtained chiefly by special manipulation. Blue is very light, and 
it fonns a very bulky paste; hence for the same product more 
presses are required in this department than in any other, except- 
ing in that for the lakes. The advantage of the application of me- 
chanical principles in increasing the output is not so well shown 
anywhere else as in this department. Were the old methods of 
filtering, pressing and drying now in use, at least five times the 
floor area would be required for the present output. 

Leaving the sub- department for blues, we enter the factory for 
the manufacture of Tuscan red and of lake colors. The apparatus 
in this department is quite similar to that we have seen in the 
others— the striking tubs, though somewhat different in shape, 
the filter presses, with the addition of peculiarly-shaped copper 
vessels, resembling a ball drawn out; these are suspended^ in iron 
frames which pemiit them to be turned over in order to discharge 
their contents. These are known as autoclaves or digesters, and 
their purpose is to extract the coloring matter from dyewoods; 
the extracted coloring matter, in hquid state, is stored 

.* ^ 1/- 1 ' A^ * ' • Colors froni 

away m vats until wanted for use, when it is precipi- Dyewoods. 
tated, by means of alum, tin salts, barium salts, etc., 
according to the nature of the lake and the color or shade desired. 
The texture of some of the very fine colors made in this depart- 
ment would be injured by the severe pressure of the filter press, 
and for these, vacuum filters are employed, using an opposite prin- 
ciple, apparently, but really the same; for by means of a partial 
vacuum the natural pressure of the atmosphere is in part realized. 
The principal dyewood used is Brazil-wood, from which is pro- 
duced the lake most largely used in paint-making, chatemuc. 
This w^ood also gives us rose pink, which is simply a lake precipi- 
tated on Paris w^hite. Carmine and its lakes are obtained from 
cochineal. The carmine apparatus is entirely distinct, and is 
separated from all the others. The majority of the lake colors are 
comparatively fugitive: therefore it is desirable to select such 
material as will give the more permanent colors. 

Tuscan red is made in this department; generally it ^^^^^^ 

is simply a mixture of Indian red and rose pink. Har- ^^ 

risons' new Tuscan red is made upon scientific principles 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



and is the most brilliant and the most durable color of the kind that 
is known. The enriching lake is almost imperishable, and will bear 
a temperature of 400° F. without being sensibly affecfted. Tuscan 
red is a sort of connecting-link between the 'lake colors and the 
mineral colors. The* 'Town and Countr>^" Ready-Mixed Paint 
No. 618, which is such a great favorite, is made from this new 
Tuscan red. 

Many of the recently-produced coal-tar dyes have much greater 
Coal Tar pemianency than thosc first made. This enables the 
p°^enu. paint-maker to give to his trade brilliant pigments that 
theretofore were unknown. One produced here is the 
now celebrated Ottoman red — a color much less costlv and of 
more body than carmine, but equal to it in brillianc}- and per- 
manence. 

The machinery' for powdering dr}^ colors is a very iniport- 
rowderinff ^"^ feature of this large color-making establishment, 
Machinery. ^^^ ^^ quitc distiudly Separated from the apparatus 
employed ni the other processes. Mills are the same 
m principle, as a rule, no matter what their special use, and the 
description of one answers for all; special mention of them will 
be made farther on. It will be noticed that great care is taken to 
isolate each color completely. In one room, in which evervthing 
IS green, there are several mills, and breakers and great pi'les of 
green on the floor. To keep the shades of standard goods striclly 
uniform, 25,000 to 35,000 pounds of the dried color are manipu- 
lated at one time. The dried color is brought frora the dr}ang- 
rooms direolly here; it is immediately passed through the 
breakers and then piled in heaps and mixed thoroughly^ after- 
ward It is fed to the mills, ground to the required degree of fine- 
ness, and discharged through spouts into the storai,-e bins on a 
floor beneath. 

In the blue-grinding department are two divisions; one is 
lor soluble or laundr>' blue only, and the other for Chinese and 
other blues intended stridly for pigment use. In one room the 
prevailing color is maroon, and here Harrisons' new Tuscan red is 
ground to an impalpable powder. In the red-millin- department 
there are three divisions— one for quicksilver vennilion, one for 
American vermilion and the other for New Idria vermilion As 
the vennilions are more deleterious to heaUh than other colors 
precaution is taken to keep the air clear of dust. Over the 
hoppers of the mills, and over all points where dust mav escape 
mverted funnels connected with large galvanized iron pipes may 



TUh: CHEMFSTRV OF PAINTS. 



Precautions 

for the 

Health of the 

Operatives. 



Water 
Purifiera. 



be seen; these all ruu into one large pipe, in which 
there is a powerful fan drawing the air through these 
fu!inel-openings, and with it all the dust. This dust- 
laden air is forced into a properly-construdled dust 
chamber, where the greater part of the floating color is deposited; 
that which is not caught in the chamber is colledled by means 
of a spray of water. Similar appliances were seen in the oxide 
and white-lead departments, and are in use where all dangerous 
dusts arise. Workmen in these departments are required to 
change their clothing in a special room entirely apart from the 
work places; aside of this dressing room are large bath and 
wash rooms, where ever>' facility is afforded for a thorough cleans- 
ing of the body after quitting work. 

Leaving the group of factories constituting the color-making 
department, we pass a detached building in which are several 
huge vertical iron cylinders with some peculiar attach- 
ments suggesting steam-boilers. These are the water 
purifiers. The water used in color-making must be very 
pure — not merely clear, but free from all soluble impurities, partic- 
ularly organic matter. These purifiers remove not only the visible, 
but the invisible, impurities; they give purer water than canbeol>- 
tained from any settling pond or crystal lake, and are of material 
aid in securing the brilliancy and richness of the Harrison colors. 

In the regular course of affairs the operations following the color- 
making are those for grinding the colors in oil; but before entering 
the oil-color mill-house we should inspe(5t the dry color-grinding 
department, where all the earth colors are specially treated to 
develop their best qualities. In one of the adjoining ^ ^^^^^^ 
storehouses may be seen great tiers of barrels, casks stor^hou^'^ 
and hogsheads, the contents of which are suggested 
by their exterior coloring. Here is a lot of casks holding some- 
thing very yellow, each package having a peculiar brand burnt 
into the head; it is an invoice of the celebrated Auxerre ochre. 
The marks " ss Switzerland 8-22-89" indicate that it was 
received by the steamsliip Switzerland on August 22, 1889. 
Adjoining is a pile of frail and awkward-looking packages which 
contain ftalian siemia; the marks " bk Leandro 5-2-89" indicate 
that it was received by the bark Leandro May 2, 1889. In 
this manner each importation is kept distinct. There are a num- 
ber of stacks of the same kind of packages, some with a reddish 
look, others with a yellow or brownish stain; they all contain 
siennas. Some of them are in the raw state, some of them burned. 

23 






THE CHEMISTRY OF rAIXlS. 



Those ugly hogsheads, each large enough to hold a ton or more, con- 
tain umber. This one storehouse is 60 x 1 50 feet, with a convenient 
drive- way through it; it is filled with these foreign goods: ochres 
from France; siennas from Italy; umbers from Cyprus and Italy; 
browns from Germany— a big shipload in all. That immense 
stock explains the enigma to those color-grinders who are puzzled 
with the uniformity of the Harrison siennas, umbers, etc. These 
earth pigments in the original state var}- so much that no two 
invoices are alike; only by having a varied stock which may be 
mixed in proper proportions can a uniform color be maintained. 

In the dr\'-color grinding department the crude earth paints are 
carefully picked and sorted and dried; they are then 
Grinding! mixed in the proportions that w411 give the standard 
Earth Painu, shadcs, and finally ground to an impalpable powder. 
^^"^ Even those colors, such as ochres, metallic browns, 

colcothars, etc, which by all other paint-makers are considered 
sufl&ciently fine to grind in oil at once, in this establishment first 
are treated in this department; none of these goods i,and only the 
finest are admitted here) are fine enough. 

The careful obsen-er will notice in his journey through these 
great works the complete independence of one department on 
another. Thus, in the dry-color grinding department is an inde- 
pendent engine, enabling work to be done continually, day and 
night, if the demands of the other departments, which may be 
run onl}' in daytime, make this necessar\'. No color can be 
properly ground unless it be bone dr}-; and for dr\'ing purposes 
may be seen large steam-heated, open dr>'ing pans and steam- 
jacketed revolving drums of different sizes; also apparatus which 
both dries and mixes at one operation. Dr>'ing is an important 
operation, for the tone of some of the colors is much impaired by 
overheating. The mills are of special construclion. and are almost 
noiseless in operation. Their w^ork is at variance somewhat with 
those mills of which it is said, 

" Though the mills of the gods grind slowlj', 
Yet theygr^'ind exceeding fine,' 

for these not only "grind exceeding fine." but grind ver>' quickly 
and in large quantity. The impalpable color is discharged into tight 
cars, which are really movable bins, all of one size, holding 500 
to 1000 pounds each, according to the nature of the material. 
These cars are used to store the color until it is required in the oil- 
oolor mill-house. 

While the colors which are more directly the product of 

34 






i4i ^7 140 618 yj 

[llustration of a cottage painted with Harrisons' ''Town and Country" Ready Mixed Paints. 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



Nature ol 

the Earth 

Colors 



chemistry- in so large measure owe their existence to 
chromium, the colors of this department — Nature's prod- 
ucts, as it were— owe their being to iron almost with- 
out exception. The rich brown umbers, the bright 
sienr^s, the beautiful maroon in all the various shades of Indian 
red, Venetian red and ochre, — all of them owe their coloring to iron 
only. Vandyke brow^n owes its color principally to carbon. Ivory 
black owes its color entirely to carbon. 

The grinding of colors in oil naturally follows the dry grind- 
ing; and we now go into a building recently ere(5led oici 
especially for this purpose upon most carefully devised mui House^ 
plans, and provided with all the latest and best ap- 
pliances. 

While the mechanical methods and processes now employed in 
many of the important industries w^hich have risen to their present 
prominence within a comparatively recent period resemble but little 
the early and hand processes which they have supplanted, the 
reverse of this is the case in the grinding of colors: the mills are 
made much more accurately, more highly finished and of material 
better adapted to the purpose than they were some years ago, but 
there are no essential changes, and, after all, it is only an evolution 
from the slab and muller, and no real change in process. The 
mixer, however, that is now employed can hardly be connedled 
with the idea of mixing dry color and oil in a keg laboriously by 
hand. Even the mixer of comparatively recent produdlion, with 
its one set of fixed and one set of revolving arms, cannot com- 
pare with the one w^hich is here Uoed, and in w^hich, 
by means of complex motion, the thorough incor- 
poration of the pigment and oil is rapidly efiedled, 
and with economical expenditure of powder. 

In this great mill house the progress of modern 
ideas is especially shown in all the arrangements where- 
by the costly but needful labor and power are mini- 
mized. . 

The exterior of the building is necessarily plain; it is so con- 
strucfted as to cause the complete lighting of the interior by nu- 
merous large windows, the flood of light reaching the 
very centre of every floor. Due consideration is also 
given to ventilation without draught, so that there is 
as little dust as possible. ^ - .^ a ^ 

Starting at the third floor, we see here dry colors m the dust- 
tight, wheeled bins which have been brought over from the dry- 

25 



Grinding 
of Colors. 



Modem 
Ideas. 



Ligrht and 
Ventilation. 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PALXTS. 



color grinding department. There are also such stationarj' bins 
as may be necessary and convenient. 

Preparing '^Jl? ^""^ material is first passed to the drj-ing 

the Dry machmes, so that all absorbed moisture may be driven 

Matenai out and the color property warmed for mixing. It is 
Mixer. then transferred to accurate scales, carefully weighed 

and quietly but quickly placed in the mixers, with the 
oil or other vehicle added in carefully weighed quantities; all of 
this work IS attended to by a clerk in charge. 

This preparation and mixing of the colors for the mills is the 
Appliances P""^!?^! Operation on this floor. Everj' appliance in 
for Mining. ^°^ ^'^y of trucks, turn-tables, etc. for the rapid move- 
ment of matenai may be seen; also the necessary oil 
varnish and japan tanks with their gauges and scales 

On the second floor we see nothing but mills— big mills and lit- 
MiUs. *i^ mills, all shapes and sizes— designed especially for the 

n^^ ^rir,A 7°'''^.rf^'fired of them, one pigment working better in 
one kind of a mill than m another; and here let it be said that the 
color is not ground once or twice or any specified number of 
Fineness of \)^^'- ^^f ^""^^^ secret of the succcss of this e.stab- 
crinding. "snment is, that the color must be ground until it has 
,..,^K ^^^?lied the required degree of fineness, whether the 

Str ^^^ '* '^ P^^^'' through the mill be one or 

A feature that will impress the careful obser^•er is the entire 
absence of iron mills-that is, mills with metallic grind- 
ing surfaces. It was long ago decided here that these were unfit 
tor gnnding colors when purity of tone was essential. In a com- 
partment entirely separate may be seen the mills for grinding 
coach Color. ^^^ coach colors. The fresco or distemper colors which 
Fresco Color. ^^ grouud in Water, and the tube colors for artists" and 
Artisu' Color, decorators' uses, also have special compartments allotted 
tor their preparation. 

convS t^T'""} ^^t^^l" ^i^^">' P^^^^'^ by the inspeclor. it is 
comejed by elevators to the floor direAly below, eniployed for 
storing and P^fl^ng. Storage and shipping. Much of the finished 
Packing. paint is packed at once into cans or other packages, 
carefullv nrnf^tL'^ . '^ "°* ^^^^^^ immediately is deposited in 

26 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



Loading 
Facilities. 



Winter 

Stock. 



This packing floor is at such elevation as to be 
level with the floors of cars or wagons; railway -tracks 
pass by the two ends of the building, and all alone 
one side teams may load. 

Below this floor is a good high basement, in which is stored 
all of the output that is packed for stock; here the pro- 
duction of the winter is accumulated, ready for the de- 
mands of the spring trade. 

On the first floor at one time may be seen large orders in prep- 
aration for the branch houses in New York, Cincinnati and Xew 
Orleans; to these branch houses shipments are made in car-load 

This mill house is 75 x 150 feet in area, and it is devoted solely 
to the preparation of colors. The height from floor to 
ceiling is quite unusual, insuring good distribution of ^^^c^P^io^ 
hght The construaion is on the modem slow-bum- ^mxuL.. 
mg plan, which also insures freedom from dust. The '^'*'''-- 

elevators are run at high speed, so that the movement of material 
and produdt is made with quietness, accuracy and dispatch It 
is noticed that there is no retrograde movement in the handling 
f lb ^^^^^^^^' ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ important matter in the saving 

In an annex is the powerful engine required for this 
building; also the dynamo for supplying the electric 
lights used after nightfall on the short winter days ^r 
when the business requires the department to be run 
longer than the usual ten hours. 

We will now enter a much older, though equally substantial 
building of the same size as the one just left; this is 
used principally for the preparation of white paints. ^f \^ 

The white lead manufacturing departments have already ^'" ^' 

been visited, and are described on pages 10 and 11. 

From the dr>nng pans or kilns the finished produdt is taken 
by cars over an elevated track direcflly to the third floor of the 
building we are now visiting. On this floor the white lead re- 
ceives a certain quantity of oil, and is chased and mulled so as to 
induce the saponification that gives to white lead its superior 
body; this treatment leaves it like putty. The mass is 
then chuted to the mixers on the second floor, where a Treatment 
further quantity of oil is incorporated and the proper Lead^*'*^ 
consistency for grinding obtained. The mills are on 
the first floor, and are fed direcflly from the mixers; two systems 

27 



Engine 

and 
Dynamo. 



::>W. 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



of grinding are used— the new or roller mill and the old or flat 
circular stone mill. 

The ground lead is discharged from the mills directly upon 
the rotating, hollow metal discs of cooling machines, which are 
Cooling chilled by a constant flow of cold water through them; 

Process. ^his cooling is essential to the good-keeping qualities 

of the lead. Proper grinding of the lead continues the 
chemical action between the oil and the pigment which commenced 
with the first treatment; chemical action is always accompanied 
Chemical ^^ ^^^^' ^^^ ^^ Continued for too long a time in the 
Action. case of white lead and oil, the product is considerably 

damaged; it is frequently the case that the ground lead 
is discharged directly from the mills to the packages and then 
lumps are liable to form or the paint turn to a bad color. All of 
this is avoided here by drawing the heat oflf and thus checking 
chemical action. 

From the coolers the lead goes to storage-tubs of five to ten 
tons' capacity each, in which it is allowed to season or " age." 

All the white lead from this factory has a beautiful silky text- 
Features ^^^> ^^^ is not excelled by any made in the qualities of 
Harrison extreme whiteness, opacity, fineness and spreading 
whiteijad. power; in fact, any that equals it is an accidental 
rather than a regular product. More attention is here 
given to supplying the particular requirements of different con- 
sumers than in any other establishment; manv corroders will 
gnnd their lead in but one way; the boast of this place is that 
all proper requirements are provided for. 

A very stiff lead, almost like cheese in consistency, is known 
as "A" lead, and is especiallv acceptable to those who have been 
accustomed to old English lead. 

The *' I. S." is a stiff lead, softer than the "A," but particu- 
larly adapted for fine inside flat work, where absolute freedom 
trom gloss is a requisite. 

A still thinner or oily lead, intended for general outside work 
IS known as " O" lead. 

1 ^.^^.^P^^i^l requirements of those manufacturers who use white 
lead m large quantities have been carefully studied and provided 

Lead and . ^^ addition to the grinding of pure white lead and 

zincPainu. ^mc paiuts, a mixture of zinc and white lead, in- 
tended for the "Town and Countr^•" paints, is pre- 
pared in this building. ' ^ 

28 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



Oil- 
Treatment 

House. 



The paint for the ready-mixed department is carried to it in 
iron cars, so arranged as to discharge directly into the ready-mixed 
paint mixers. 

Before entering the ready-mixed paint department, a general 
inspection of the processes of receiving, storing and distributing the 
oil, and a trip to the oil- treatment house, should be made. The oil is 
received in barrels or tanks in car-load lots; if in bar- 
rels, the entire load is run on a long skid over a trough, 
bungs are drawn and the sixty barrels are drained at 
one time into the trough, which, by the necessary pipes, 
discharges into the receiving or storage tanks; these tanks are 
made of boiler iron and placed at such points as may be conve- 
nient. When the oil is delivered by car- tanks, it is discharged 
directly into the receivers by gravity. The storage-tanks are all 
connected with a general pipe system, by means of which, and the 
aid of the ubiquitous air-pressure, the oil is distributed to any desired 
point. The pipe system is extended under one of the main streets 
to the oil-treatment house, situated in an isolated position beyond 
the boiler-house, and nearly one thousand feet from the point 
where the oil is received. The oil treating-house is necessarily of 
fire- proof construction; in it all the oil used in " Town and Coun- 
try" paint is clarified and made more elastic and durable by 
boiling and other processes. For simply boiling the oil there are 
five hooded kettles, in which 1,700 gallons may be treated at once. 

The stone- dressers should not pass unnoticed. In a room by 
themselves may be seen the half dozen men who are constantly at 
work keeping the mill stones sharpened. The proper 
operation of grinding is not dissimilar to cutting with 
shears. The edges must be kept sharp, for when a mill 
stone loses its ' ' dress" — that is, becomes smooth and glazed — it will 
not cut the particles of material into smaller particles; it may mull 
or crush, but it will not grind. An interesting tool for doing this 
work is the pneumatic stone-dresser, which materially hastens the 
operation. All of the stone- dressing for the entire plant is done 
here, the mills being so arranged that both the bed-stone and 
grinder ma}' be removed. 

As the manufadlure of the " Town and Country" 
ready-mixed paints is the culminating work of this 
establishment, we will mention some other departments 
before describing the one devoted to this raanufacfture. 

On our way from the oil-treatment house we take a glance at 
the stable, aiiy% well lighted, well ventilated, and equipped as it 

29 



Stone- 
Dressingr- 



Minor 
Features of 

the Plant- 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



Stable. 



should be for the fortv-five magnificent animals it 
houses. The draught horses are mostly Clydesdales 
weighing 1600 to 1900 lbs. each, and when doing their work 
(without apparent effort) in front of the large and heavily-loaded 
wagons, they well represent the substantial character of the business. 
The printing office is a necessar}" adjuncT;; in it every la- 
Printing ¥^' P^^^ ^i^^' circular, etc. that pertains to the bu- 
Department. smcss IS prepared; all of the work (including colored 
plates) of this pamphlet was done in it. Already it has 
estabhshed an excellent reputation for choice color-work- the inks 
used are prepared in the color mill-house. 

Another feature that impresses the visitor is the system of 
raikoad tracks ramifying the entire plant and connec5ling with 
TransDor ^11 the trunk lines entering the city; there is over\alf a 
tation °^^^^ ^l railroad tracks in the works, and these give 

Faduties. "^^f^^ direa connections wath the main tracks of the 
t. o .. /^\^^'^7 ^^^^^ passing in proximity. Lving directly on 
the Schuylkill River, vessels discharge brimstone and other crude 
material from foreign sources without cost of lighterage or other 
handling; m fadl, ever}^ facility is afforded for recei\ing material 
from and shipping it to all points, and for the condud of the 
business of the establishment upon the most favorable conditions 

Ready.Mixed r.^T^"'"^^'''^^ .^\^''^^^-^''^ Countr>- rcady-mixcd 
Paint P^^^^ department, the visitor is impressed by an arrav of 

Department, tanks carr3ang their height through two floors. These 

are the mixers, eighteen in all; they are double— that 
is, one tank withm another— and with internal machiner>' that beats 
Mixers. ^^^ mixcs the material into a homogeneous con- 

• ^ .1. . sistency. The pigments and vehicles are char^red 
into the tanks from the fourth floor of the building. The paste 
ri Ir ^^j\^i^^^^^^ite are brought up in iron cars; the liquids 
are delivered by the air-pressure, and when material equal in 
volume to 700 gallons is placed in each mixer, the powerful 
machinery is set in motion, and the process of churning, beating 
ttS ^""^ "^'^'''^ '' continued for two days. Can any hand! 
method m any way approach this in effectiveness > These 
mixers are only for making the white base of the painf 
coloring and ^hc coloHug IS douc in smaller mixers. The power- 
shading, i^l tmtmg colors are first reduced Tv4th oil in mixers 

somewhat similar to the large ones described to a verv 

n^'m?xe"s ir^^he' ri /l"" ^''^' ^^ ^^^ ^^'^^^^ ^^^ S'the coin- 
ing mixers in the nght proportions to produce the desired tints; 

30 



Ii 



ummmaak 




I 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



skin' ' or 



Economy of 
the Manu- 
facture. 



Capacity. 



these coloring mixers make 150 to 200 gallons to each batch 
From these the fanished pamt is deposited in the storage and 
filling tanks, whence it is filled into packages as required 
Before the paint is filled into a package it is strained through a 
ver>' fine wire sieve which removes every trace of " cv;«'' ^^ 
coarse particle. 

All the work is by gravity; the operations com- 
mence on the fourth floor and the paint is delivered 
into the packages on the first. The business is con- 
dudled so systematically that ten thousand gallons 
of paint may be delivered in ten hours without any pres- 
sure or confusion. 

Some of the rules governing this department are w^ell worthy of 
notice. The shades and tints are maintained to a uniformity by a 
peculiar system of unchangeable standards. It is well 
known that white lead, zinc white and colors react on Uniformity of 
one another chemically, and slowly but surely change ^^^^^^^^"^^• 
their original tone. Now, to prevent a change in the color- 
standards they are here made of absolutely non- 
changeable, inert material, which, while having no paint ^°change- 
property of itself, senses to give the ''shader" his un- 
erring standard to w^hich to shade each batch. 

After the shader has done his w^ork and passed the paint, 
a practical painter samples the batch, paints it out, and 
notes carefully its body, working and drv'ing. It can- Tests and 
not be packed until he pronounces it correct in these ^°^p*^*=''°°- 
particulars, when the packers may have it. From the pack- 
ing tanks it is drawm off into a gauged receptacle holding ten 
gallons. This measure is on a truck scale; when the measure 
is full to the proper mark it is weighed by a weigh clerk, who 
compares the weight with the table of weights. If it vary 
more than one per cent, from the average weight, it is rejected 
and must be remanipulated. If found correct, it is filled into 
the desired packages. 

It is w^ell to note right here that much of the manufacture 
is packed in one-gallon cans. Much is said about ' * trade' ' 
gallons and "commercial" gallons. Now, the United 
States standard gallon is 231 cubic inches. Some Honest 

manufacturers lay great stress on the alleged fact 
that their one-gallon cans hold 231 cubic inches; but even so: that 
does not permit 231 cubic inches of paint to be put in them; in 
other words, a can cannot be entirely filled. If the "Town and 

31 



able Color- 
Standards. 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



Country*' one-gallon cans be measured, it will be found that their 
capacity is nearly 240 cubic inches, and that 231 cubic inches of 
paint are packed into them. 

A practice, rapidly dying out, we believe, is to sell what are 
called "trade" gallons. These hold less than seven pints. A 
can to hold one gallon should be not less than six and 
Measure*^ cleven-sixteenth inches in diameter, and six and three- 
^^ ^^" quarter inches in height. Height is frequently used 
to deceive the unwary, as many so-called gallon cans are seven 
inches high, but only six in diameter, and such a can will not hold 
quite seven pints. 

We have seen the manufacture of '*Town andCountr>^" ready- 
mixed paints from the crudest material to the finished product 
read}^ for use, and have learned much of the chemistr>' of the 
subject in plain, matter-of-fact language. A little more may be 
said in the way of practical chemistr>' , and then some practical 
suggestions will be given. 

As the perishing of paint is almost entirely due to the destruc- 

. tion of the vehicle, and as nearly all the pigments which 

Paint, ^^^^ fulfil the immediate or first requirements in paint- 

making are more or less chemically active and aid in 
the destruction of the vehicle, scientific paint-making requires 
that the vehicle be rendered as inert as possible to the action of 
the pigment; and further, in ready-mixed paint-making it is ver}^ 
Why Town csscntial that chemical action should not take place 
and Country between the components of the paint while it is in the 
Paint does package in the store-house waiting for the buyer. In 
not cbangc. ^Xown and Countr}' paints this chemical action is pre- 
vented by keeping the paint in a state of emulsion. The water of 
emulsion must evaporate before the dr}ing action can take place. 
As this water evaporates, the surface of the paint gradually as- 
sumes that smooth and even condition which produces the hard, 
glossy, durable surface for which these paints are so renowned. 
Unfortunately, this plan of paint-making permits the unscrupu- 
lous manufacturer to palm off water for paint when the quantity- 
introduced is more than sufficient for its proper use. Such a paint, 
however, will not be used by the practical painter or by any one 
who is a fair judge of paints. A good test of this paint is 
weight; taking the pale tints, which must contain the maximum 
of zinc and lead base. When properly made, the emulsified paint 
weighs 13 to 15 pounds per gallon; the water paints will weigh 
but q to II. This rule will not apply to those dark colors which 

32 



THE CHEMISTRY OE PAINTS. 



do not permit the use of any white in their preparation. These may 
be made of pigment and oil only, and weigh but 9 pounds. 

In the Town and Country paints the oily vehicle is simply the 
purest linseed oil that is made, very carefully treated to make it 
durable, kept by emulsion in an inert condition until used, and 
rendered fluid for working under the brush by the addition of 
naphtha, which more than any other vehicle has the property of 
thinning a paint, and therefore may be used in smallest proportion; 
furthermore, ever>' atom of this evaporates on drying, so that the 
pure pigment and durable oil only are left on the surface. 

The reader who has followed these pages to this point is with- 
out doabt convinced that it would be difficult to find a paint su- 
perior to that produced in this estabhshment, and doubtless he 
beheves that the proper place for mixing the paints — as it is for 
grinding them — is the factory. 

The change of the present day to paints ready mixed, or en- 
tirely prepared for use, is in conformity with the gen- ^hy there 
eral advancement of the age: it is not revolutionary or ^^^ R^^^y- 
extraordinar>'; it is simply a step in a natural evolu- Mixed Paints. 
tion or progression. As the grinding of dry paints by 
hand with slab and muller was succeeded by the employment of 
steam machinery, so the mixing of paste paints by means of a 
stick into a condition for use has been superseded also, in its 
turn, by the use of mechanism specially designed. It is merely a 
repetition of the story we see everywhere around us: manual labor 
with its drudgery, want of uniformity, and want of completeness 
giving place to the perfection of scientific appliances. 

Not only does the use of ready-mixed paints constitute a gain 
to the painter in convenience and economy, saving 
drudgery, waste and time, but, what is of even greater 
importance respecially to the property owner), there is 
also a material gain — when standard brands, such as 
the Town and Country, are purchased— in the quality 
of the paints obtained. Under the old method of paint- 
mixing it is impossible to incorporate with the pigment niore than 
a certain quantity of oil without interfering with its working qual- 
ities. Oil, however, is really the life of paint; it is mainly from 
the oil that paint obtains its preser\^ative virtue, and it may be 
laid down as an axiom that the more oil (consistent with the re- 
tention of proper working qualities), and the better the oil, the 
better the paint. This is one reason why the Town and Country 
paints are found so superior in durability to white lead mixed 

33 



Ready-Mixed 
Faints not 
antagonistic 
to the work 
of the Prac- 
tical Painter. 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



in the ordinary way, and it partially explains the gain in quality 
referred to above. The method of the preparation of these paints 
causes the incorporation of a much larger percentage of oil than 
has been possible by previous methods. When we add to this 
the fact that the process employed gives also a rich gloss or finish 
unobtainable in any other way, which, besides adding greatly to 
beauty of appearance, enables the paints to resist more effectually 
the action of the elements, the superiority of the new system over 
the old will be apparent. 

The advantages of a paint read}- for use (ready for use except- 
ing the addition of more oil for raw surfaces) are now so w^ell 
recognized that nothing need be said in their favor, 
thfng, there Much Condemnation of ready -mixed paints is heard be- 
any^coSnte^ causcso many are inferior and give such unsatisfactory 
feit. results. But no one condemns real money because 

there is counterfeit mone\% and no one condemns white 
lead or painters' colors because much that is sold is counterfeit. 
We know that good and pure may be had, and when once we are 
made acquainted with the reliabilit}- or lack of it in different 
brands, we are no longer imposed upon. So with paints ready for 
use. Some are good, many are bad. When we learn to discrim- 
inate between the good and bad, and use only the former, we shall 
recognize full}' their value, their superiority for exterior work to 
any hand-mixed paint. 

At one time skilled painters feared that giving up the control 
of mixing the paints they used might prove detrimental to their 
business; but so many have admitted the groundlessness of such 
fear b}^ their regular use of high-grade mixed paints that this sub- 
ject need no longer be considered. 

The manufacturers of ''Town and Country'" paint prefer that 
other paint be used by any one who will not employ a competent 
painter, because unskilled painters cannot do good 
Painters use work, and their lack of skill and experience leads to 
Rlfdy^Mii^ the condemnation of the paint used by them. Ver>' 
Paints. few competent painters, and none who have intelligent- 

ly tested it, will deny the superiority of the ' ' Town 
and Countr}^" paint for exterior painting when compared with 
the best shop- or hand-mixed material. They recognize its ad- 
vantages, just as they recognize the advantage of buying white 
lead and colors already ground, instead of buying the dr>' pig- 
ment and vehicle separately and grinding them together in the 
shop; no one could do that now and earn his salt. 

34 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



While it is an unquestioned fact that but few painters — and 
only those of great capacity and experience — can produce shades 
of color of such beauty and richness as are furnished, ready for 
use, in the ''Town and Countr\'" paints, and, while it is also 
true that painters, whatever their training, cannot produce paints 
of similar quality by the means at their command, still, the object 
of the manufacturers is not to do away with, but rather to sup- 
plement, the painter's work. There is no antagonism possible or 
intended. The manufacturers of *' Town and Country" paints, 
so far from endeavoring to lessen the use of experienced labor, 
most strongly urge and recommend its constant employment. 
They recognize that the greater the skill of the workman the 
better the results obtained from their material, and the better 
these results the more advantageous it is for the reputation of 
their paints, and, consequently, for their interests. 

To obtain satisfactory results it is not only essential 
to have the best material, but that material must^be 
properly used. If work be done regardless of the con- 
ditions necessary to insure permanency, failure is 
simply invited and must be expected. 

Too much stress cannot be laid upon selecting the proper time 
for painting. Work done in wet weather or on rain- 
soaked wood or sappy or unseasoned wood is alrnost 
certain to fail. Work done hurriedly or with thick, 
heavy coats of paint is also almost certain to result in 
disappointment. 

See that your painting is done in dry weather, 
ample time is given between coats for each to dry; see that no 
more paint is used than is necessar>-; see that all new work has 
three coats. Three thin coats will take less paint than two heavy 
coats and will wear better and longer. Above all things, see that 
you have an experienced, capable and honest man to do your work. 
Such a workman will probably give better results with poor 
material than the incompetent man will with the best material. 

Some manufaaurers guarantee the durabihty of their pamt, 
and, strange as it may seem, some of the poorest Guarantee, 
paints are most strongly guaranteed. The *'Town 
and Countr>^" paint is sold simply on a warranty of its punty and 
composition, and this warranty will be accompanied by any reason- 
able penalty required. The manufacturers know from a long 
experience that properly used, and used under proper conditions 
nothkig but the best results can be obtained, and they will not 



Suggestions 

in Using 

Paint. 



Hints on the 

Application 

of Paint. 



See that 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



hold themselves responsible for the ignorance or cupidity of the 
property owner or the inexperience or dishonesty of the one ap- 
plying the paint. 

It is absolutely necessary for good results that the original 
surface be put in good condition. It is a common error, even 
with experienced painters, to believe that anything 
^"d°^h ^'^^^ ^^ ^^^ priming; but as the priming coat bears 

NecJLa^. the same relation to the succeeding coats that the 
foundation of a building bears to the superstructure, 
it is as fallacious to expect durability from a bad priming coat as 
permanence from a building that has a poor, uncertain or bad 
foundation. In many buildings the lumber is inferior, wet, or 
unseasoned. In such cases the priming coat should be applied 
when the weather is driest, and allowed to remain for some weeks 
before applying the other coats. The oil appears to displace the 
sap, hastening its evaporation. If the succeeding coats were 
applied at once, the sap would be held in, and finally result in 
peeling or scaling the paint. If the wood be well seasoned, no more 
time need be given after its application than sufficient to dry the 
priming coat thoroughly. 

The essential properties of the priming coat are to fill the 
pores and make a surface to which the succeeding coats will 
.^ firmly adhere. Therefore, the pigment should be one 
Properties that will Carry a large quantit}^ of oil, and still make a 
prfmer°^ Workable paint, and also be chemically inactive, yet 
in such mechanical condition that its particles will at- 
tach themselves to the grain of the wood. White lead does 
not fill all of these conditions so well as certain ochres that are 
free from clay, but which contain free silica in a sharp but finely- 
divided state. An ochre that will not carry three times its own 
weight of raw oil, and at the same time be a fairly thick paint, 
will not meet the requirements. 

To m^et all these conditions, Messrs. Harrison Bros. & Co. 
'Town and ^^^'^ prepared their "Town and Country" primer and 
Country'" filler, and this has proven to be the most suitable 
pnmer and article yctofi'ered for the purpose. While this should be 
applied freely, it is to be thoroughly worked into the 
surface. If a heavy coat be applied to sap or yellow pine and al- 
lowed to stand for several months, it will be found that the sap or 
resin has been killed; this may then be cleaned oflf and the work 
finished, with most durable result. Work will not stand when 
finished at once, on green, sappv. resinous or waterlogged wood. 

36 




TKfcU^ ' -^UTi 1 " 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



As previously stated, not only is much of the ready-mixed 
paint that is offered for sale worthless, but so are many ^ ^^^^ 
of the painters' colors and much of the white lead, and i„pu„oii. 
therefore one is liable to as much imposition, unin- 
tentionallv or otherwise, on the part of the vender in buymg the 
ingredients separately and mixing them himself as ^^^^^ ^^^ 
in buying them in mixed form. In fact, at this time in Mixing 
( 1 89 1 ) there is more danger from sophisticated linseed oil ^^^^fX 
and oil substitutes than even from white lead and colors. 

An intelligent painter, writing from a Western city of 40,000 

population, states that nearly all the painting done there m a year 

was with oil retailed at less than one-half the crusher's The con- 

price for linseed oil, and asks, Can any sensible man be J»»«JJ;S 

surprised at the general dissatisfaction with painting ? Quality in 

Poor pigments and good oil are a better combination u^i-counS^" 

than the best pigments and sophisticated oil. In using paints. 

• ' Town and Country ' ' paints the consumer is assured of 

not only the use of the best quality of oil and the best pigments, but 

the verv best combination of them known in modern paint-makmg. 

It is absolutely impossible to give a paint m mixed forni— that 

is of the proper consistency— for all kinds of surfaces and all sorts 

of temperatures. When the surface is very raw or ^^.^^ ^^^^ 

absorbent, a thinner paint must be used than for a hard beofcon- 

or non-absorbent surface; and a paint that is of the I^^IZ^. 

right consistency for work in a temperature of 50 or tionsof sur^ 

60® will be found quite too thin in a temperature 01 »o xemperaturt. 

or QO° In "Town and Country" paint the consist- 

encris just right for a hard surface and moderate temperature, 

and in general for a fini.shing coat. Oil or turpentine, or both, 

must be used for the undercoats, and these are the only articles to 

be pro^•ided in addition to the "Town and Country pamt. It 

therefore becomes necessary that every one using Town and 

Country" paint assure himself that the oil or turpentine used 

is perfectly pure and of the best quality. ,• j -, 

It is not contended that the use of cheap oils or linseed-oil 

Mihstitutes is never justifiable, for there are occasions when 

painting is for temporary purposes only, and it may be wise to 

use matenal of only temporary value; but what is unjustifiable is 

vendine impure oil or oil substitutes as pure linseed oil; and it 

^ems to us that the linseed-oil manufacturer and consumer have 

the same right to protection by law against such pradice as the 

datryman !nd the butter consumer have against the sale of 

37 



7!^^- 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



oleomargarine as genuine butter. As the sale of oleomargarine 
as such is not objected to, so there cannot be any objection to the 
sale of substitute oils as such. 

Our talk about priming has had reference to new work mainly. 
The repainting of a surface when the old paint has thoroughly 
perished — that is, has become like dust — is quite a 
of^lintlr/ simple matter. After the surface has been thoroughly 
Surfaces. saud-papercd and dusted the primer and filler maybe used 
as for new w^ork, or the color in which the work is to 
be finished applied at once; but not more than two coats, the first 
coat made very thin with raw linseed oil and some turpentine. 
The "Town and Country" paint of usual consistency should be 
thinned for such work with about one quart of oil and one pint of 
turpentine to each gallon. The turpentine aids it to penetrate the 
pores of the old paint. 

When the old paint is very hard, but inclined to chip oflf, very 
great care is required to produce good results, because the new 
paint on top of the old will, by the contradlion in dr>ang, causes 
the latter to loosen its already feeble hold, and old and new come 
off together, The old paint will not permit the penetration of the 
new paint through it, so as to give it a new bond to the wood or 
original surface, and it is not sufiiciently bonded to resist the con- 
tra<5tion of the new coat in drying; thorough scraping must first 
be resorted to. Unless the color is to be changed, it is best to give 
such a surface but one coat, as thin as it is possible to work it and 
cover properly. If the color is to be changed, give two coats, but 
with an interval of several weeks, and each coat as light as it can 
be worked. 

New work should always have three coats, the first to be 
New Work ^^ primer and filler, as previously directed. The 
second and third coats are to be of the color selecfled. 
The '*Town and Country" paint for second coat is to be thinned 
with about one quart of oil and one pint to one quart of tuq^entine 
to each gallon, or half the quantity of perfectly sweet naphtha 
may be used in place of the turpentine. Naphtha containing coal 
oil will injure the paint, and must not be used under any circum- 
stances. This coat must be well brushed out. For the'finishing 
coat the "Town and Country" paint is usually of proper consist- 
ency; if too stout, add raw linseed oil only in just sufficient quan- 
tity to make the paint work freely under the brush. 

On every package of paint a few plain and explicit direAions 
are given. 

38 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. 



Economic 
House- 
Painting. 



It is obvious that the quantity of paint required will vary ac- 
cording to the state of the surface to be painted. For 
new work on lumber fairly smooth and of good quality ^eTu^J^ 
it wnll be safe to estimate 275 to 300 square feet of sur- 
face per gallon, three coats, used as above diredled, about two- 
fifths to be primer and filler. On a surface properly prepared with 
Primer and Filler, one gallon of "Town and Country" paint will 
cover 400 square feet or more of surface, two coats. The great 
economv of the paint is at once apparent. 

Economic house-painting, it is thus seen, does not depend 
upon buving the lowest-priced materials; such general- 
ly have but little pigment or vehicle value, and are, 
therefore, relatively dearer; and they lack the element 
of durability. That paint is best which can be laid on 
in the thinnest layers. The cheap nostrums must be " flowed 
on" in thick layers, otherwise the surface will not be covered. 

Bear in mind, the Harrison establishment is the only one in 
which are conducted all the processes of manufaaure, from the 
crude material to the finished produd. 

When measuring for quantity required do not make any al- 
lowance for window and other openings, as they will ^^^^^,^^^ 
not any more than equal the extra surface of frames, 
mouldings and other projections. It is quite proper to take the 
lenffth, breadth and height of a building m full. 

Positive rules for the selection of colors cannot be given. It is 
probably one of the most difficult features m the work ^^^^ ^^ 
of beautifying the home; so difficult is it that the prop- colors, 

ertv-owner will frequently waive his or her natural 
sood taste to the judgment of the painter. .^ This is well when the 
painter is progressive, has fine taste and will continually workout 
new color schemes, instead of (as is too frequently the case) follow- 
ine one idea, and that usually very dull or inharmonious. The 
grlat variety of colors in the "Town and Country pam s permits 
fven- possible color scheme to be followed^ One well-pamted 
house in a community that has had a long affliction of ^^^^^ 

stone color or drab creates an improvement m the gen- Painting 
eraftaste, leading quickly to the betterment of the en- i-p-- 
tire neighborhood and increases the value of property. It values. 

is now quite common to find suburbs of cities of most 
Sctresque appearance, due entirely to the use of "Town ^nd 
SS^^ bright and harmonious combination of the difi;er- 

ent shades As it is impossible to give satisfactorily m words a gmde 

39 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAIXTS. 



for the selection and application of colors, some illustrations are 
furnished as suggestions of good color effect; but print- 
iiiustrauona. ^^^, ink fails to do justice to the subject. The parent 
house or any of its branches will suggest combinations on receipt of 
architect's elevation, photograph or sketch of building, and will 
give full directions for the placing of each color. To aid in this 
work the proprietors have published, at great expense, 
fn^how' ^ portfolio of fift}' designs on a large scale. These are 
obtainld. in the hands of their agents, of architects and of prom- 
inent builders, and are for the use of any one intending 
to buy or use the paint. An>' one addressing the house will be in- 
formed w^here a portfolio may be seen, or will be loaned one under 
certain conditions. 

Due regard must be given to the architecture of the building 
. . .^ , in both the selection and the application of the colors; 

Architecture , , . , . . ^^ . i • i ■ i I- 

of Building though, HI general, an^- combination which is good of 
conAdered. itself may be used, provided each element is properly 
proportioned. 

Harmonious color selections may be made from either analo- 
gous colors or complementary colors. It has become common to 
use the latter sj^stem, yet it is one which requires the best devel- 
opment of the color sense, and for this reason better results are 
generall}^ obtained by one with natural good taste than by one 
without who attempts to apply the theory of complementaiy 
colors. Where there is a combination of the two systems, ver>^ 
pleasing results are obtained; for instance, a gradation from an 
olive brown to alight but warm yellow tint. This subject, how- 
ever, can be covered satisfactorily by illustrations only. 

** Town and Countr>'" paints are intended primarily for exterior 
^^^^ ^ house-painting, but, properly used, they make an 
Country" equally good interior paint. For plastered walls they 
where'used. ^^^ exceptionally valuable, making a finish that will 
permit continued cleaning. For the plastered w^alls of 
kitchens and bath-rooms they make a finish inferior in value 
only to glazed tile. 

For floors they will not dry flinty enough unless applied in 
Floor-Paint- nuiuerous thin coats; for such use they should be thin- 
ing. n^(j well with refined naphtha (benzine). For floor- 

painting it is best to use Harrisons' Floor Paints, which are espe- |\- 

cially prepared for such purpose; these are actually hardened by ^ 

washing and are ver>^ resistant to ordinarv* wear. 

For furniture-painting a diflferent system is necessary. Paints 

40 




I 



tmm' 



THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS, 



Fumiture- 
Palnting. 



as prepared for house-painting will not do for furniture. 
Harrisons' Varnish Carriage Paints or Interior Deco- 
rative Enamels may be used for furniture-painting or 
decoration with most satisfactor>' results. 

'^Town and Countr}'" paints have been found eminently dur- 
able and economical for vessel-painting, and are recom- vessei- 
mended for such use. ^'f''^- 

Testimonials could be furnished ad nauseam. Better evidence 
of the value of these paints than their long-continued ^^^^^^^^^^^_ 
use by the most intelligent painters cannot be offered. 
There are many who cannot appreciate the difference between 
good and bad, but the Harrison estabhshment does not exist for 

We have already made our journey through this extensive 
plant longer than originally intended, and in conclusion Conclusion. 
are pleased to state that any one interested m paints and 
painting is cordially invited to visit it and see for himself what 
these pages are intended to describe. 



THE SND* 



41 



ALL PAINTS 

BEARING THE NAME OF 

HAREISON BROTHERS & HO. 

AND CLAIMING BY THE 
LABEL TO BE 

PURE 

ARE GUARANTEED TO BE OF 

ABSOLUTE PURITY.